Written by Derek A. Olsen:

1 Enoch is the best known of the non-canonical apocalypses due to its early date of discovery, New Testament parallels, and its great length. Discussing the work's form, structure, dating and provenance are complicated due to its highly composite nature; it consists of five discrete sections each of which could be considered separately. Based on investigations of the ex eventu prophecies in the textClick for footnote, most scholars date the earliest portions of the book shortly before the Maccabean period. The most solid evidence is the presence of the document at QumranClick for footnote where four of

the five sections are presentClick for footnote. The scroll fragments and writing can be dated to the first half of the second centuryClick for footnote. Thus, it was in existence in the late second century BCE. As the Qumran fragments reveal, the book's original language was Aramaic and its provenance was Palestine. Greek fragments also survive but the book is found in its entirety only in Ethiopic.

The large number of fragments at Qumran suggest that it held canonical status there and it was quoted in the community's documents. Of particular interest to the sectarians was the astronomical section which upheld a solar calendar over the lunisolar calendar used by the Temple hierarchy in Jerusalem. The book appears to have had wide circulation within Jewish apocalyptic groups including Christianity; Jude 1:14 cites it as authoritative Scripture. The Epistle of Barnabas also quotes it and some of the early Church Fathers like Tertullian approved of it. It fell into disfavor after the fourth century and is only preserved in the Ethiopian Orthodox Church which still regards it as canonical. This work had little direct influence on medieval Christianity except where it influenced the New Testament itself and the thought-world of the early ChurchClick for footnote.